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Those who insist there is a logical gulf between facts and values, such that it is fallacious to attempt to derive values from facts, include G. Moore, who called attempting to do so the Naturalistic fallacy.
Factuality — what has occurred — can also be contrasted with counterfactuality — what might have occurred, but did not.
A "fact" can be defined as something which is the case, that is, the state of affairs Facts may be understood as that which makes a true sentence true.
Facts may also be understood as those things to which a true sentence refers.
If this argument holds, and facts are taken to be what true statements stand for, then we reach the counter-intuitive conclusion that there is only one fact - "the truth".
For example, the fact described by the true statement "Paris is the capital city of France" implies that there is such a place as Paris, there is such a place as France, there are such things as capital cities, as well as that France has a government, that the government of France has the power to define its capital city, and that the French government has chosen Paris to be the capital, that there is such a thing as a "place" or a "government", etc..
A crinoid belonging to the group Disparida, possibly a member of the family Myelodactylidae. nov (col.); genus also contains Simakocrinus diligens sp. A member of Pan-Cryptodira (the clade containing living cryptodirans and all turtles sharing a more recent common ancestor with them than with pleurodirans), possibly a xinjiangchelyid. (2017) considered it to be either a pan-trionychian (sister taxon to Trionychia) or a pan-carettochelyid.
Description: Investigación comparativa y centrada en los tocapus debujados por Guaman Poma en su obra Nueva Crónica (alrededor de 1560).
In A Treatise of Human Nature Hume pointed out there is no obvious way for a series of statements about what ought to be the case to be derived from a series of statements of what is the case.
Apart from the fundamental inquiry in to the nature of scientific fact, there remain the practical and social considerations of how fact is investigated, established, and substantiated through the proper application of the scientific method.
In addition to these considerations, there are the social and institutional measures, such as peer review and accreditation, that are intended to promote factual accuracy (among other interests) in scientific study. , argues that the inherent biases from the gathering of facts makes the objective truth of any historical perspective idealistic and impossible.
The verifiable accuracy of all of these assertions, if facts themselves, may coincide to create the fact that Paris is the capital of France.
Difficulties arise, however, in attempting to identify the constituent parts of negative, modal, disjunctive, or moral facts.